Types of Company Registration in Indonesia 2021 (Updated List)

Indonesia is booming with opportunities for any business to grow. With a population of over 264 million and being a strategic location, it is no wonder why the Indonesian government has eased business processes. Following the omnibus law, Indonesia has more business fields now open to foreign investors, a decrease in bureaucracy, and more incentives to start your business there.

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There are several types of business entities in Indonesia that foreign or domestic businesses can use to set up a company in Indonesia. They can be categorized as a state-owned company (BUMN) or a private-owned company (BUMS).

  • Local companies (PT PMDN),
  • Foreign investment companies (PT PMA), and
  • Representative offices (KPPA).

What is a state-owned company (BUMN)?

A state-owned company is a business entity where the Indonesian government is partly, or wholly, involved to conduct commercial activities. PERUM and PERSERO are the main types of BUMN.

  1. PERUM

A public company (PERUM) is state-owned. This means that the company’s capital is owned by the Indonesian government, and their focus is on profits. Employees in PERUM are considered civil servants.


A liability company (PERSERO) received its capital partly or wholly from separated state assets. Capital is also mainly in the form of shares (or stock). Their main goal is to gain socioeconomically, meaning to gain profits and benefit the public.

What is a private-owned company (BUMS)?

A private-owned company is set up by a founder, or a group of private investors, and has a share in the profits that the company earns. Firma (Fa), Commanditaire Vennootschap (CV), and Company Limited (PT) fall under this category.

  1. Firma (Fa)

A firm business entity is a partnership between two or more people to do business. These firms have greater financial capabilities and create better efficiencies within the company.

2. Commanditaire Vennootschap (CV)

A CV is a limited partnership business entity that consists of at least two persons - a managing partner and a limited partner. While the managing partner is in charge of the day-to-day running of the business, the limited partner is usually a venture capitalist who provides the capital for the business.

3. Company Limited (Perseroan Terbatas - PT)

A PT is the most common type of business entity in Indonesia. An Indonesian PT requires a resident director, two shareholders, and a commissioner. This can be both a Local Limited Liability Company (Perseroan Terbatas Penanaman Modal Dalam Negeri - PT PMDN) or a Foreign Limited Liability Company (Perseroan Terbatas Penanaman Modal Asing - PT PMA). For more details on the respective types of companies, do read

What are representative offices?

A representative office (RO), or Kantor Perwakilan Perusahaan Asing (KPPA) in Bahasa, is a simpler way for foreigners to establish a presence in Indonesia.

However, an important difference is representative offices are not allowed to generate revenue. They are only allowed to be engaged in promotional activities, market research activities, and corporate communication with Indonesian stakeholders.

In exchange, however, a representative office has no restrictions about business field, foreign ownership, or minimum capital. Basically, this means that any business entity can open a representative office in Indonesia. There is more than one type of RO such as KP3A, BUJKA, and KPPA Migas which are for different industry types.

So, foreign investors who are interested in easing into the local market should approach qualified service providers to properly access their application process.

So, what are the differences?

These three types of business entities are the most common types of companies in Indonesia.

  • Local companies (PT PMDN),
  • Foreign investment companies (PT PMA), and
  • Representative offices (KPPA).

Below, we’ll outline each of their requirements, benefits, and drawbacks.

Furthermore, minimum investment values are regulated in the Indonesian rupiah (IDR) by the government. As such, the US dollar (USD) amounts in this article are approximate references to give you a better idea based on general conversion rates and not exact values.

 Local companyForeign investment companyRepresentative office
Indonesian legal termPT PMDNPT PMAKPPA
Can generate revenueYesYesNo
Allowed activitiesAny commercial activity, in allowed business fieldsAny commercial activity, in allowed business fieldsMarket research and corporate communications
Ownership100% localUp to 100% foreign, depending on business fieldNo restrictions
Minimum investment value• ±USD 3.500 - ±USD 35.000 (small)
• ±USD 35.000 - ±USD 700.000 (medium)
• > ±USD 700.000 (large)
±USD 700.000No restrictions
Can use virtual officesYesYes, with conditionsYes
Benefits• Smaller capital requirement
• Faster set-up time compared to foreign companies
• Legal way for foreign-owned businesses to operate and generate revenue• No minimum capital required
• Faster set-up time compared to foreign companies
Disadvantages• No percentage of foreign ownership allowed• Higher investment value required
• Not available for all business fields
• Not allowed to generate revenue
• Only valid for max. 5 years
Approximate time to set up3-4 weeks±10 weeks±8 weeks weeks
Best forLocal businesses not planning to involve foreign investorsForeign investors or companies who plan to operate businesses in IndonesiaForeign investors or companies who are still evaluating the market or don't plan on seeking revenue

What is a local company in Indonesia?

A local company, or PT PMDN in Bahasa, is the most common form of business entity in Indonesia. This type of company is roughly similar to limited liability companies (LLCs) in terms of structure and function.

Setting up a local company in Indonesia requires at least the following people:

  • Two local shareholders,
  • One local or foreign director with a tax ID, and
  • One local commissioner.

Keep in mind that to get a status as a local company, the shareholders, commissioner, and investment all need to be entirely domestic. However, the director can be foreign as long as they have an Indonesian tax ID number (Nomor Pokok Wajib Pajak - NPWP).

Greenhouse Coworking Space in Jakarta, Indonesia aims to be environmentally-efficient by using natural materials, natural light, and waste recycling.
A local company in Indonesia can use a virtual office service in a registered office building as their business address.

Furthermore, a local company in Indonesia can fall under three categories based on their total projected investment value. These are:

  • Small companies, valued at IDR 50 million or ±USD 3.500 to IDR 500 million or ±USD 35.000.
  • Medium-sized companies, valued at IDR 500 million or ±USD 35.000 to IDR 10 billion or ±USD 700.000.
  • Large companies, valued at more than IDR 10 billion or ±USD 700.000.

So, depending on the business field, setting up a local company generally requires a cheaper investment size and paid-up capital than a foreign company.

Local companies are allowed to operate a wider variety of business activities than foreign companies. Many more – but not all – business sectors in Indonesia are open to investment from domestic-owned companies compared to foreign-owned ones.

As a bonus, most local companies are freely allowed to use virtual offices or business address services. On the other hand, a better option for foreign companies and representative offices are physical spaces in registered office buildings.

What is a foreign company in Indonesia?

A foreign investment company, or PT PMA in Bahasa, is the standard way for foreign investors to operate a company in Indonesia. Like a PT PMDN, a PT PMA’s structure and function are roughly similar to LLCs.

Setting up a foreign company in Indonesia requires at least the following people:

  • Two local or foreign shareholders,
  • One local or foreign director, and
  • One local or foreign commissioner.

If the foreign director that is appointed does not yet have the tax ID and does not plan to reside in Indonesia, it’s better to have a local director to represent the company during the registration process. Although the director can technically be a foreigner.

A foreign company or representative office in Indonesia needs to register a physical office space as their business address.
A foreign company or representative office in Indonesia should register a physical office space as their business address.

According to Indonesian regulations, both local and foreign companies fall under the “PT” category. In other words, they have roughly the same rights and responsibilities, with a few key differences:

Foreign shareholders

Unlike a local company, foreign investors can wholly or partly own a foreign company depending on the business field. However, any amount of foreign shareholders – whether 100 percent, 50 percent, or even 1 percent – means that the company can’t be classified as local anymore. You’ll need to register it as a PT PMA.

Minimum investment value

While local companies can be more flexible, a foreign company needs to have an investment plan valued at a minimum of IDR 10 billion or about USD 700.000. To be exact, 25 percent of this – IDR 2,5 billion or about USD 175.000 – needs to be paid-up capital upfront. In other words, foreign companies have to be categorized as large companies.

Restricted business fields

For foreign companies in Indonesia, some business fields are available for 100% foreign ownership, while others are capped at lower percentages. With the introduction of the omnibus law, there has been an increase in business fields open to 100% foreign ownership. However, that is with the exception of a few business fields, which can be found in our Summary of Negative & Positive Investment List 2021.

Business location

Unlike local companies, foreign companies can only use virtual offices offered by vendors with specific qualifications. For a simpler and faster way to set up, a PT PMA needs to register its location with a physical space in an office building.

What business should I start in Indonesia?

In conclusion, there are many types of business entities available in Indonesia and we have listed the top three options. They have very different benefits and considerations depending on your needs. As such, we advise that you connect with professional consultants to help evaluate your options and choose the best one that fits your business goals in Indonesia.

On that note, Greenhouse has experience in handling all processes related to a local company, foreign company, and representative office registration. We’re happy to help you start incorporating your business in Indonesia.

Greenhouse empowers you to book business incorporation services and connect with market entry consultants in your target markets.

We’ll connect you with experienced consultants on the ground who can help answer your questions about doing business in Indonesia.

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